• Summary of the Republic by Effects and Cause

      The “visible” plan of the Republic G158/A81 Introduction : the five challenges Prologue : the setting 327a-369b (39) 327a-328c ( 1) G5/A5      — Cephalus : ambiguity, social justice, fear of Hades 328c-331d ( 3) Cephalus      — Polemarchus : uncertainty, give each one his due 331d-336a ( 4)  Polemarchus      — Thrasymachus : duplicity, law […]




  • Plato’s Republic (Book IX-X)

      Tyrannical Person: proofs that the just are happier than the unjust Lawless friends plus money from a father = a democrat, when you add smarts and depresssion and lawless ruler…you get tyrant. First proof that justice is happier state(571b-c): He begins by discussing necessary and unnecessary pleasures and desires (571b-c). Kings: Those with balanced […]




  • Plato’s Republic (Book VIII)

    Review of the Aristocracy (543)Socrates picks up the argument that was interrupted in Book V.  Glaucon remembers that Socrates was about to describe the four types of unjust regime along with their corresponding unjust individuals (543c-544b). kings excell in war and philosophy women and children are held in common education held in icommon  in nwar […]




  • Plato’s Republic (Book V-VII)

    3 Waves of Objections/Somatic Unit of Polis (449a-474a; V.1–V.16) Socrates is about to embark on a discussion of the unjust political regimes and the corresponding unjust individuals when he is interrupted by Adeimantus and Polemarchus (449a-b). Men/women are equal in nature (449a-457c) (449b-d) They insist that he needs to address the comment he made earlier […]




  • Plato’s Republic (Books II-IV)

    Genesis of the Polis (369a-434d) (367b) They ask Socrates to defend justice for its own sake, not for its benefits to ones reputation. He admits this is no small task. (368c-369a) He proposes to look for justice in the city first and then to proceed by analogy to find justice in the individual, just like […]




  • Plato’s Republic Prologue (Books I – II.10)

    PROLOGUE of The Republic “Tales” (myths) about injustice (327a-368d) Bk. I (327a) Socrates was on his way with Glaucon to pray at the Piraeus and see how the festival in honor of the Thracian goddess Bendis would be conducted.  (328b) Polemarchus’ son invites them to Polemarchus’ house.  (328e-331d) Socrates speaks to Cephalus about old age, […]




  • Summary of Plato’s Phaedo

    In the Phaedo, Socrates defends the immortality of the soul and gives an account of the purpose of the philosophical life. The book follows the pattern of an epic poet and resembles an entrance and a return. We can divide the text into x parts:   The Theseus Myth (57a) – Santa Maria Trailer Socrates is not concerned about […]