Book II, Chapter 1 – Nature is an intrinsic principle, art is extrinsic. In Book II, Aristotle tries to identify the means by which we explain change – causes. Definition of Nature: It is evident that self generating things have an intrinsic principle of motion and rest in them primarily and essentially, and not incidentally. If they do not have an intrinsic cause of their becoming something else, then they came
The basic idea in book one is to find out the number Chapter 1 – Natural Science Aristotle lays out his plan for the Physics, though it will only become apparent at the end of the book for the first-time reader. In chapter one (184b1-184b14) he claims we have science when we grasp things’ principles, explanatory factors, and have analysed out its elements. So we must start by determining principles
Defintions Matter (I)- That out of which something comes to be and which persists in the result Nature (II) – an intrinsic principle of motion and rest which belongs to the thing essentially1)a part of the very constitution of the thing and primarily2)the differentiae peculiar to the species and not as a concomitant attribute3)its a freakish thing. Causes (II) – that on which something depends for its coming to be,
The “visible” plan of the Republic G158/A81 Introduction : the five challenges Prologue : the setting 327a-369b (39) 327a-328c ( 1) G5/A5 — Cephalus : ambiguity, social justice, fear of Hades 328c-331d ( 3) Cephalus — Polemarchus : uncertainty, give each one his due 331d-336a ( 4) Polemarchus — Thrasymachus : duplicity, law of the stronger, justice for others 1st part : Thrasymachus’ definition of justice 336b-354c (18) 336b-340a
Tyrannical Person: proofs that the just are happier than the unjust Lawless friends plus money from a father = a democrat, when you add smarts and depresssion and lawless ruler…you get tyrant. First proof that justice is happier state(571b-c): He begins by discussing necessary and unnecessary pleasures and desires (571b-c). Kings: Those with balanced souls ruled by reason are able to keep their unnecessary desires from becoming lawless and
Review of the Aristocracy (543)Socrates picks up the argument that was interrupted in Book V. Glaucon remembers that Socrates was about to describe the four types of unjust regime along with their corresponding unjust individuals (543c-544b). kings excell in war and philosophy women and children are held in common education held in icommon in nwar and peace rulers have no privacy and special dwellings rulers have no possessions but lve
3 Waves of Objections/Somatic Unit of Polis (449a-474a; V.1–V.16) Socrates is about to embark on a discussion of the unjust political regimes and the corresponding unjust individuals when he is interrupted by Adeimantus and Polemarchus (449a-b). Men/women are equal in nature (449a-457c) (449b-d) They insist that he needs to address the comment he made earlier that the guardians will possess the women and the children of the city in common.
Genesis of the Polis (369a-434d) (367b) They ask Socrates to defend justice for its own sake, not for its benefits to ones reputation. He admits this is no small task. (368c-369a) He proposes to look for justice in the city first and then to proceed by analogy to find justice in the individual, just like the eye chart of letters to read helps us see bigger letters. In the end
PROLOGUE of The Republic “Tales” (myths) about injustice (327a-368d) Bk. I (327a) Socrates was on his way with Glaucon to pray at the Piraeus and see how the festival in honor of the Thracian goddess Bendis would be conducted. (328b) Polemarchus’ son invites them to Polemarchus’ house. (328e-331d) Socrates speaks to Cephalus about old age, the benefits of being wealthy, and justice. Socrates enjoys learning from Cephalus’ in his old age.
In the Phaedo, Socrates defends the immortality of the soul and gives an account of the purpose of the philosophical life. The book follows the pattern of an epic poet and resembles an entrance and a return. We can divide the text into x parts: The Theseus Myth (57a) – Santa Maria Trailer Socrates is not concerned about pleasure and pain while waiting for his death, signalled by docking of ship. Many people